One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I d.
Europe, to The Ottoman Empire emerged circa with the establishment by the first Ottoman ruler, Osman, of a small principality bordering on Byzantine territory in western Anatolia. It reached its greatest extent inwhen the empire comprised central Hungarythe Balkan PeninsulaAnatolia, Mespotamia, Syria and Palestinewestern ArabiaEgyptand lands in the Caucasus and western Iran.
Between andthe Ottomans lost the lands in Iran and the Caucasus that had been ceded to them in Inhowever, they took control of Crete.
Bythe Ottoman Empire was a regional power, comprising western and northern Anatolia and much of the Balkan Peninsula. Mehmed II ruled — expanded and consolidated Ottoman rule in this region. His conquest of Constantinople in finally extinguished the Byzantine Empire.
In the Balkanshe annexed Serbia between andBosnia inand, indefeated George Kastriote Scanderbeg in central Albania.
In he removed the last two Byzantine rulers of the Peloponnese, and in conquered Trebizond, the last independent Greek city. Infearing for its Greek colonies, Venice declared war.
The war was fought in the Peloponnese, in Albania, and on the Aegean, the naval conflict encouraging the growth of the Ottoman fleet. Mehmed had used a fleet at the siege of Constantinople, and he inherited the naval dockyard at Pera when he annexed this Genoese colony in He used the fleet first against the Genoese, taking Enez and Phokaia in the s, Amasra on the Black Sea inand Lesbos in The amphibious war with Venice culminated with the conquest of the Venetian island of Evvoia Negroponte in In —, Mehmed had conquered and annexed the emirate of Karaman in south-central Anatolia, bringing him into dispute with Uzun Hasan, who also coveted the principality.
The dispute led to war in and an Ottoman victory that secured Ottoman territories in Anatolia. The removal of this danger allowed Mehmed to extend his conquests to the Black Sea. Using a dispute within the Tatar khanate as a pretext, in he sent a fleet to the Crimea, reducing the khan to the status of Ottoman tributary, and capturing the Genoese city of Caffa.
An attempt to strengthen his domination of the region with an incursion into Moldavia in merely provoked a Hungarian counterattack.
In the same year, the Ottomans occupied Cephalonia, Levkas, and Zante as a preliminary to capturing Otranto on the Italian mainland in In his brother Jem had fled to Rhodes, and the threat to foment civil strife in the Ottoman Empire by releasing him from captivity provided Catholic Europe with a new weapon.
Before this, inhe had attacked Moldavia, seizing the ports of Kilia and Akkerman, and, between andhad waged an unsuccessful war against the Mamluks, rulers of Syria and Egypt since the mid-thirteenth century.
It was adherents of the Safavids who formed the core of a rebellion that broke out in in southwest Anatolia.
It was the youngest who forced his father to abdicate and ascended the throne as Selim I ruled — Over the next four years he expelled the Safavids from southeast Anatolia. This war led to a new conflict. In Selim invaded and defeated a Mamluk army near Aleppo. In earlyhe defeated a second Mamluk army outside Cairobringing the Mamluk domains, which included the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, under his control.
Gunpowder technology was a significant element in these Ottoman successes. After the battle, he supported the newly elected John Szapolyai against the claims to the Hungarian throne of the Habsburg Ferdinand of Austria. InSuleiman expelled Ferdinand from the Hungarian capital Buda and unsuccessfully laid siege to Vienna.
Peace with Ferdinand in allowed him to lead a campaign against Iran, which by had added Baghdad and Erzurum to the empire. During this campaign, inSuleiman invited Hayreddin Barbarossa to command the Ottoman fleet.
Suleiman instead unsuccessfully attacked the Venetian island of Corfu. In response, Venice allied with Charles V, Austria, and the pope.History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Provides an overview of the least studied period of Balkan history, the Ottoman period.
The appendixes include lists of dynasties and rulers with whom the Ottamans dealt, data for the House of Osman and some grand viziers, and more. The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Klasik Çağ) concerns the history of the Ottoman Empire from the Conquest of Constantinople in until the second half of the sixteenth century, roughly the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r.
The Ottoman Empire was one of the great empires in world history; it arose in Asia Minor, and developed the Janissary corps; it captured the city of Constantinople, conquered Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Hungary, the Crimea and much of the Ukraine before starting a long decline, ending just after World War I.
Feb 13, · The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest and most influential empires in world history. For centuries, Europe watched with fear as the Ottomans steadily advanced their rule across the Balkans.
Yet travelers and merchants were irresistibly drawn toward Ottoman lands by their fascination with the Orient and the . OTTOMAN EMPIRE  OTTOMAN EMPIRE. The Ottoman Empire  emerged circa with the establishment by the first Ottoman ruler, Osman, of a small principality bordering on Byzantine territory in western Anatolia.
Brief History of Ottoman Empire: Origins. The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks.