Footprint measurements and methodology[ edit ] The natural resources of Earth are finiteand unsustainably strained by current levels of human activity.
History of ecology The roots of ecology as a broader discipline can be traced to the Greeks and a lengthy list of developments in natural history science. Ecology also has notably developed in other cultures. Traditional knowledge, as it is called, includes the human propensity for intuitive knowledge, intelligent relations, understanding, and for passing on information about the natural world and the human experience.
In his publication, Specimen academicum de oeconomia naturae, Linnaeus developed a science that included the economy and polis of nature. Polis stems from its Greek roots for a political community originally based on the city-statessharing its roots with the word police in reference to the promotion of growth and maintenance of good social order in a community.
Spencer was influenced by and reciprocated his influence onto the works of Charles Darwin. Herbert Spencer coined the phrase " survival of the fittest ", he was an early founder of sociology where he developed the idea of society as an organism, and he created an early precedent for the socio-ecological approach that was the subsequent aim and link between sociology and human ecology.
Human values, wealth, life-styles, resource use, and waste, etc. The nature of these interactions is a legitimate ecological research topic and one of increasing importance. Marsh was interested in the active agency of human-nature interactions an early precursor to urban ecology or human niche construction in frequent reference to the economy of nature.
Smallcollaborated with sociologist George E. Their publication "explicitly included the relation of the social world to the material environment. Richards first introduced the term as " oekology " inand subsequently developed the term "human ecology".
Park and Ernest W. Burgess also from the sociology department at the University of Chicago. Their student, Roderick D. McKenzie helped solidify human ecology as a sub-discipline within the Chicago school.
Some authors have argued that geography is human ecology. Much historical debate has hinged on the placement of humanity as part or as separate from nature. An Interdisciplinary Journal gave an introductory statement on the scope of topics in human ecology.
Genetic, physiological, and social adaptation to the environment and to environmental change; The role of social, cultural, and psychological factors in the maintenance or disruption of ecosystems; Effects of population density on health, social organization, or environmental quality; New adaptive problems in urban environments; Interrelations of technological and environmental changes; The development of unifying principles in the study of biological and cultural adaptation; The genesis of maladaptions in human biological and cultural evolution; The relation of food quality and quantity to physical and intellectual performance and to demographic change; The application of computers, remote sensing devices, and other new tools and techniques : Bates  notes lines of continuity in the discipline and the way it has changed: Today there is greater emphasis on the problems facing individuals and how actors deal with them with the consequence that there is much more attention to decision-making at the individual level as people strategize and optimize risk, costs and benefits within specific contexts.
Some of these applications focus instead on addressing problems that cross disciplinary boundaries or transcend those boundaries altogether. Scholarship has increasingly tended away from Gerald L.
Young 's idea of a "unified theory" of human ecological knowledge—that human ecology may emerge as its own discipline—and more toward the pluralism best espoused by Paul Shepard: This new human ecology emphasizes complexity over reductionismfocuses on changes over stable states, and expands ecological concepts beyond plants and animals to include people.
Application to epidemiology and public health[ edit ] The application of ecological concepts to epidemiology has similar roots to those of other disciplinary applications, with Carl Linnaeus having played a seminal role.History and Context of Environmental Treaties. Environmental treaties have a relatively short history in the context of contemporary international law.
The ecological species concept defines a species as a group of interrelated organisms that occupy or adapt to a single niche. For example, if a population of birds exploits two different food sources, it represents two distinct species.
Our Ecological Footprint presents an internationally-acclaimed tool for measuring and visualizing the resources required to sustain our households, communities, regions and nations, converting the seemingly complex concepts of carrying capacity, resource-use, waste-disposal and the like into a graphic form that everyone can grasp and use.
An Reviews: “ecological footprint” as an accounting tool used to measure the resource consumption and waste assimilation requirements of a defined human population or economy in terms of a corresponding productive land area.
The ecological footprint concept is still widely used today as a resource management tool (Global Footprint Network ).
May 13, · Strengths of the Ecological Footprint Analysis Its universality and adaptability is an obvious strength – that an individual in Australia can gauge their ecological footprint, along with a business in France, the city of Cascais in Portugal and the .
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