Retrieved Sep 26 from https: In order to provide culturally sensitive counseling, counselors need to know and respect the traditional values of the particular ethnic group. Beyond this, the counseling process may be enhanced by attention to other salient factors involving acculturation, enculturation, personal issues, and environmental variables. The task demands idiosyncratic tailoring of the counseling process to meet the diverse needs of this growing ethnic minority group.
Asian Americans represent a very diverse population in the United States, with approximately 29 distinct ethnic groups differing in languages, religions, and customs.
However, the model minority myth tends to generalize more toward East and Southeast relative to all Asian American groups. The model minority myth generally characterizes this group as intelligent, academically conscientious, educationally achieving, skilled in math and science, respectful, obedient, well-behaved, well-assimilated, self-disciplined, serious, hardworking, affluent, and professionally successful, particularly in business, science, and technology.
History of Asian American Stereotypes Although the current and most common stereotype of Asian Americans that exists in the United States is the model minority myth, stereotypes about this population have evolved through numerous changes since the first wave of Asian immigrants in the mids.
Political and economic issues have largely influenced the evolution of Asian American stereotypes. Asian immigrants were often portrayed in the media as the pollutant, coolie, and deviant during the s and s. Because of their willingness to work for lower wages, Chinese immigrants were used as scapegoats, often facing attacks for sending money made in the United States back to their families in China and becoming work competitors with small American farmers and workers.
Eventually, the yellow peril terminology was coined by journalists to warn White Americans that Culturally sensitive counseling Chinese and Japanese were going to take over the United States and destroy their civilization; thus, the press depicted Asians as irrational, dark, and inassimilable.
The yellow peril stereotype was extended to other Asian groups as the wars with Japan, Korea, and Vietnam evolved. Therefore, Asian men were often depicted as either hypermasculine and dangerous or as impotent and sexually undesirable in popular fiction and movies.
During the wars, the use of comfort women by the Japanese military in Asia contributed to the stereotypes of Asian women as exotic and promiscuous. Asian women also were portrayed to fall in love with White men rather than Asian men.
During the civil rights movement and Black Power movement in the s, and possibly in reaction to these movements, the model minority stereotype first appeared in popular media in U. News and World Report in ; this was followed by similar articles in Newsweek in and Time magazine in Asian Americans were described as a racial minority group that had overcome hardship and discrimination through hard work and determination and were, therefore, set as an example for other ethnic minority groups to follow.
Many have argued that the characterization of Asian Americans as a model minority was developed as a political propaganda against other racial minority groups by creating a racial triangulation between White Americans, Asian Americans, and African Americans, such that Asian Americans are triangulated as alien to White Americans but superior to African Americans.
This marked the beginning of the model minority myth that would come to dominate the image of Asian Americans in the United States. The Model Minority Myth Today An abundance of evidence suggests that the model minority myth is still alive and well today.
For example, current media primarily depict Asian Americans as successful, affluent, intelligent, wise, technologically skilled, industrious, altruistic, and highly driven to achieve academic excellence and professional accomplishments.
Research has demonstrated that White American students hold the model minority myth about Asian Americans, such as perceiving Asian Americans as being more successful in technical careers than social careers and characterizing Asian Americans as hardworking, intelligent, self-controlled, cautious, obedient, and being loyal and committed to family.
Also, studies have shown that the model minority myth has been accepted by other ethnic and racial groups and internalized by Asian Americans.
Although the model minority myth often emphasizes positive stereotyped traits, it is important to note that some negative stereotypes have continued to exist about Asian Americans. For example, stereotypes that describe Asian Americans as quiet, shy, and overly compliant remain commonplace.
Women of Asian descent continue to be depicted as exotic and subservient, whereas Asian men are often portrayed as asexual, submissive, and nerdy. Impact on Asian American Populations The prevalence of the model minority myth, as well as its acceptance in U.
Specifically, demographic profiles seem to suggest that Asian Americans have greater purchasing power, obtain higher education degrees, have higher standardized test scores, earn a greater median income, own more homes, and save more earnings than other ethnic groups in the United States.
Although these demographic profiles continue to fuel the model minority myth, a closer examination of these statistics demonstrates that Asian Americans receive lower incomes given their higher levels of education.
Also, studies have found that Asian American college students are not as academically successful i. Furthermore, Asians who are high academic achievers and seem to fit the model minority myth actually consist of a very selective sample i.
This bias is also reflected in the media portrayal of model minority Asian Americans, with East Asian Americans most visibly displayed in U. Although the model minority myth may describe some Asian Americans, existing evidence suggests that this stereotype certainly does not accurately represent all Asian Americans, and within-group differences e.
In addition, recent research has demonstrated that the highly positive generalizations of the model minority myth may have negative implications. Research has focused on the negative impact of the model minority myth and on the popular stereotype that Asian American students do not need academic or personal help and are more psychologically adjusted than other groups.
The underutilization of mental health services by Asian Americans, in general, also led to the erred belief that Asian Americans do not need psychological services, which has contributed to the lack of attention to the physical and mental health of Asian Americans and a dearth of culturally sensitive services for this population.
In fact, preliminary research suggests that the additional pressure to maintain and live up to the model minority image may contribute to negative psychological adjustment for Asian Americans e. In particular, Asian Americans who may not have the talent or motivation for a career in mathematics or sciences may suffer from stress and feelings of inadequacy and failure.Some counseling scholars state that, if counselors apply any stereotype of a particular group to all its individuals, the counselors are likely to misperceive and misunderstand the clients and fail to be culturally sensitive.
As Asian Americans tend to underutilize psychological services, university counseling centers need to develop more culturally appropriate outreach interventions for Asian American students to reduce the stigma of seeking counseling and provide culturally sensitive counseling services to better meet the needs of Asian American students.
Free Online Library: Culturally sensitive counseling for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders.(mental health counseling) by "Journal of Instructional Psychology"; Psychology and mental health Education Psychological aspects Social aspects Counselor and client Analysis Counselor-client relations Mental health counseling Psychiatric counseling.
The counseling discipline has recently begun to take culture into consideration when assessing and treating the individual and the field continues to search for a theoretical model that will provide a culturally sensitive methodology. Innovations in Delivering Culturally Sensitive Social Work Services: Challenges for Practice and Education is for human service professionals and educators who are seeking innovative ways to make their practice and service delivery more culturally appropriate and .
A new focus on cultural sensitivity. If a counselor were not sensitive to the collectivist norm of the Afghan culture, he or she might feel pretty angry or agitated at the client and ask the “intruder” to leave immediately.
If that were done, I’m afraid the counselor would lose the relationship with both clients.