Definition, Intelligence Quotient and Distribution of Intelligence!
Development of intelligence There have been a number of approaches to the study of the development of intelligence.
Psychometric theorists, for instance, have sought to understand how intelligence develops in terms of changes in intelligence factors and in various abilities in childhood.
|Intelligence: Essay on Intelligence ( Words)||Also fine motor skills have begun to develop, however more slowly.|
For example, the concept of mental age was popular during the first half of the 20th century. Thus, an average year-old would have a mental age of 12, but an above-average year-old or a below-average year-old might also have a mental age of 12 years. The concept of mental age fell into disfavour, however, for two apparent reasons.
First, the concept does not seem to work after about the age of The mental test performance of, say, a year-old is generally no better than that of a or year-old, and in later adulthood some test scores seem to start declining. Second, many psychologists believe that intellectual development does not exhibit the kind of smooth continuity that the concept of mental age appears to imply.
Rather, development seems to come in intermittent bursts, whose timing can differ from one child to another. The work of Jean Piaget The landmark work in intellectual development in the 20th century derived not from psychometrics but from the tradition established by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.
His theory was concerned with the mechanisms by which intellectual development takes place and the periods through which children develop. Piaget believed that the child explores the world and observes regularities and makes generalizations—much as a scientist does.
Intellectual development, he argued, derives from two cognitive processes that work in somewhat reciprocal fashion. The first, which he called assimilationincorporates new information into an already existing cognitive structure.
The second, which he called accommodationforms a new cognitive structure into which new information can be incorporated. The process of assimilation is illustrated in simple problem-solving tasks. Suppose that a child knows how to solve problems that require calculating a percentage of a given number.
The child then learns how to solve problems that ask what percentage of a number another number is. Suppose that the child is then asked to learn how to solve time-rate-distance problems, having never before dealt with this type of problem.
This would involve accommodation—the formation of a new cognitive structure. Cognitive developmentaccording to Piaget, represents a dynamic equilibrium between the two processes of assimilation and accommodation. As a second part of his theory, Piaget postulated four major periods in individual intellectual development.
The first, the sensorimotor period, extends from birth through roughly age two. During this period, a child learns how to modify reflexes to make them more adaptive, to coordinate actions, to retrieve hidden objects, and, eventually, to begin representing information mentally.
The second period, known as preoperationalruns approximately from age two to age seven. In this period a child develops language and mental imagery and learns to focus on single perceptual dimensions, such as colour and size.
The third, the concrete-operational period, ranges from about age 7 to age A preoperational child, asked which beaker has more water, will say that the second beaker does the tall thin one ; a concrete-operational child, however, will recognize that the amount of water in the beakers must be the same.
Finally, children emerge into the fourth, formal-operational period, which begins at about age 12 and continues throughout life.Human Growth and Development This Essay Human Growth and Development and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on caninariojana.com Autor: review • November 14, • Essay • Words (3 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1).
Essay on Intelligence: Definition, Intelligence Quotient and Distribution of Intelligence! “Intelligence is what you use when you do not know what to do” – Jean Piaget.
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Human intelligence - Development of intelligence: There have been a number of approaches to the study of the development of intelligence. Psychometric theorists, for instance, have sought to understand how intelligence develops in terms of changes in intelligence factors and in various abilities in childhood.
For example, the concept of mental age was popular during the first half of the 20th. Artificial Intelligence Essay Words | 8 Pages.
Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence or "AI" is the study of computer science that tries to enlighten and to imitate, through machine-driven or computational procedures, facets of human intelligence. In this paper, we will explore the differences between these research methods and how they are applied when studying the development of intelligence.
To begin, one must understand intelligence and how it can be measured.