Thank you Akji for the prompt corrections 18 gaddeswarup August 13, at 8:
It is imputed and is mediated by concept or designation. Ogden and RichardsHow is this concept formed? A person observes different objects of the extralinguistic world and marks different occurrences of the referent. He compares the similar and contrasting features of this referent with those of the other referents.
This enables him to make abstractions and form a general idea or concept of the thing in his mind. When a person sees a cat at the first occasion he may not know what to call it. But when he sees it again and again, he finds that it has certain characteristics, it mews, it drinks milk, it has a long tail etc.
These characteristics of the 'referent' make the speaker form a concept of its picture in his mind. He compares them with similar other 'things' with the same characteristics.
He understands that all referents having these characteristics are animals. The association of the linguistic form cat with the thing of the above description makes him understand that this particular animal is a cat.
In formation of this idea he first observes the general features and then specific features. We may take another example. When one sees a chair repeatedly he discovers certain qualities or features associated with it. He finds that it has four legs, it is used for sitting, it has a backrest and it usually not always has hands.
He associates these features with the linguistic form chair by hearing it and concludes that all things having these characteristics are chairs.
These features are different from those of a stool, a table, or a cot, all pieces of furniture, sharing some features with chair and not sharing some others.
On the basis of these features the person forms the concept of the referent in his mind. These features are, thus, crucial or criterial for the formation of the concept. Every word has a bundle of such features which in their totality are crucial for the determination of the meaning of a word.
It is not only the presence of these features which is crucial for the determination of the meaning even their absence is equally crucial. So this is a positive or plus feature. But whereas man has the feature of adult child does not have it.
In the latter case adult is a negative or minus feature See It is clear from the foregoing discussions that meaning is an abstraction or generalization based on the semantic feature of the events or things.
The notion of abstraction is not confined to the objects which have actual and concrete referents in the extra-linguistic world only but extends to cover such fictitious and imaginary referents as unicorn, fairy etc.
Some other classes of lexical units like attitudinal symptoms like hallo, Hindi are, Skt. Hale 'o', pragmatic operators like please, deictic markers H. These lexical units, although they do not have actual referents in the extra-linguistic world, are comparable to them in that they either carry the information comparable to that conveyed by the denotative words, or they stand for them as yah 'this' vah 'that or denote the relational functions which make the communication possible.
All these classes of lexical units have been stabilized as part of the language and have their own communicative value. The lexicographer includes and describes them in the dictionary although the mode and type of their definition and description is different from those of the denotational words.
But they are identified and described differently in different languages so that the features determining the meaning become language specific. What is crucial in one language may not be the same in another. What is denoted by hand and arm in English has only one word in Rusian ruka.
The hole of the needle is described differently by different languages. NidaThe most notable lexical items in which languages differ in the organisation of the concepts into linguistic forms are kinship terms, terms for colour and words denoting time. The English word brother-in-law has seven equivalent in Hindi, bahanoii.
Hindi bhaiyaa or daadaa 'elder brother' has the following words in Bengali denoting the order of the brothers according to age: Oriya has only niila to denote both blue and green. English has eleven colour terms as compared to two in Jale, three in Tiv, six in Tamil and twelve in Angami.Home Microbiology Culture Media used in Microbiology MacConkey Agar (MAC): Composition, preparation, uses and colony characteristics MacConkey Agar (MAC): Composition, preparation, uses and colony characteristics.
A useful activity sheet for revising writing simple words using familiar graphemes. The Guinness Book of Records lists feature-length film and TV versions of William Shakespeare's plays, making Shakespeare the most filmed author ever in any language..
As of July , the Internet Movie Database lists Shakespeare as having writing credit on 1, films, including those under production but not yet released. The earliest known production is King John from MacConkey agar was developed in 20th century by Alfred Theodore MacConkey.
It was the first formulated solid differential media. MacConkey agar is a selective and differential culture media commonly used for the isolation of enteric Gram-negative bacteria.
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