Printer-friendly version Leavitt's Diamond: Understanding the Factors Involved in Change When preparing an organisation for a change initiative there are many mistakes which are often made. Change initiatives often fail due to a lack of preparation, and hence never had a chance of succeeding. One common mistake is to treat the initiative in isolation from the rest of the organisation.
Astronomy Some of the most spectacular advances in modern astronomy have come from research on the large-scale structure and development of the universe.
In Vesto Slipher began at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona an extensive program to measure the velocities of nebulas, using the Doppler shift of their spectral lines. Doppler shift is the observed change in wavelength of the radiation from a source that results from the relative motion of the latter along the line of sight.
By he had studied about 40 nebulas, most of which were found to be moving away from Earth according to the redshift displacement toward longer wavelengths of their spectra.
Although the nebulas were apparently so far away that their distances could not be measured directly by the stellar parallax method, an indirect approach was developed on the basis of a discovery made in by Henrietta Swan Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory.
Leavitt studied the magnitudes apparent brightnesses of a large number of variable starsincluding the type known as Cepheid variables. Some of Leavitt s model 1965 were close enough to have measurable parallaxes so that their distances and thus their intrinsic brightnesses could be determined.
She found a correlation between brightness and period of variation. Assuming that the same correlation holds for all stars of this kind, their observed magnitudes and periods could be used to estimate their distances. Since this was much greater than the size of the Milky Way system, it appeared that the Andromeda Nebula must be another galaxy island universe outside of our own.
It is the closest spiral galaxy to Earth, at a distance of 2. Calculations by Aleksandr A. The universe may be finite, though unbounded, like the surface of a sphere.
Thus, the expansion of the universe refers not merely to the motion of extragalactic stellar systems within space but also to the expansion of the space itself. Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven The beginning of the expanding universe was linked to the formation of the chemical elements in a theory developed in the s by the physicist George Gamowa former student of Friedmann who had emigrated to the United States.
Gamow proposed that the universe began in a state of extremely high temperature and density and exploded outward—the so-called big bang. Matter was originally in the form of neutronswhich quickly decayed into protons and electrons ; these then combined to form hydrogen and heavier elements.
History of the big-bang model. In the predicted cosmic background radiation was discovered by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson of the Bell Telephone Laboratories as part of an effort to build sensitive microwave -receiving stations for satellite communication.
Their finding provided unexpected evidence for the idea that the universe was in a state of very high temperature and density The study of distant galaxies also revealed that ordinary visible matter is a tiny fraction of the matter-energy of the universe.
In Fritz Zwicky found that the Coma cluster of galaxies did not contain enough mass in its stars to keep the cluster together. American astronomers Vera Rubin and W. Kent Ford confirmed this finding in the s when they discovered that the stellar mass of a galaxy is only about 10 percent of that needed to keep the stars bound to the galaxy.
Dark energy was discovered only by observations of distant supernovas in the s made by two international teams of astronomers that included American astronomers Adam Riess and Saul Perlmutter and Australian astronomer Brian Schmidt. These theories also offered a fundamental basis for chemistry by showing how the elements could have been synthesized in stars.
The idea that stars are formed by the condensation of gaseous clouds was part of the 19th-century nebular hypothesis see above. The gravitational energy released by this condensation could be transformed into heatbut calculations by Hermann von Helmholtz and Lord Kelvin indicated that this process would provide energy to keep the Sun shining for only about 20 million years.
Evidence from radiometric datingstarting with the work of the British physicist Ernest Rutherford inshowed that Earth is several billion years old.Bishop DuBourg High School is a coed, Catholic college preparatory grade high school in St.
Louis, MO that emphasizes academics, faith, service, and family. Sep 13, · Leavitt’s Diamond is a model that is one of the critical success factors models. It is used in change management. It is used in change management.
It was designed by Harold J. Leavitt in /5().
Taking as a case study the transition from the static view of the universe to the Big Bang theory in cosmology, we appraised Kuhn’s theoretical approach by conducting a historical reconstruction and a .
They married in and had two children, Ella Marie and Patricia Anne settling in their current home in in Topsham. They just celebrated their 53rd wedding anniversary.
In addition to his wife and children, he is survived by daughter and sons-in-law Grace Leavitt, Victor Anderson and Rene Goulette. Fatigue: New Mouse Model in the Works Researchers presented a new mouse model for fatigue at the Society for Neuroscience meeting.
The model is the first of its kind and works by manipulating the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Jan 13, · Harold Leavitt’s diamond shaped organisational systems model () (DeLone,W).
Within “The Determinants of Information Systems Success,” by William H. DeLone (), he believes that the success of IS is possibly affected by the interaction among task, technology (IS), people and structure.