Longman academic writing series 4 essays pdf examples

Co-operating with proficient users of the new language Empathising with others Developing cultural understanding Becoming aware of others' thoughts and feelings Oxford, a, p. In asking questions, for example, students might ask something specific like "Do you mean?

Longman academic writing series 4 essays pdf examples

During the Gupta EmpireBengal was a hub of Sanskrit literature. These dialects were called Magadhi Prakrit. They eventually evolved into Ardha Magadhi.

Some argue that the points of divergence occurred much earlier — going back to even[30] but the language was not static: For example, Ardhamagadhi is believed to have evolved into Abahatta around the 6th century, which competed with the ancestor of Bengali for some time. Bengali was an official court language of the Sultanate of Bengal.

Muslim rulers promoted the literary development of Bengali. The modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the Nadia regiona west-central Bengali dialect.

Bengali presents a strong case of diglossiawith the literary and standard form differing greatly from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language.

On the day of 21 February five students and political activists were killed during protests near the campus of the University of Dhaka. In Bengali was made a state language of Pakistan. This gives Bengali the distinction of being the only language in the world that is known for its language movements and people sacrificing their lives for its preservation.

A Bengali language movement in the Indian state of Assam took place ina protest against the decision of the Government of Assam to make Assamese the only official language of the state even though a significant proportion of the population were Bengali-speaking, particularly in the Barak Valley.

Inthe parliament of Bangladesh and the legislative assembly of West Bengal proposed that Bengali be made an official UN language. A Bengali sign in Brick Lane in Londonwhich is home to a large Bengali diaspora Besides the native region it is also spoken by the Bengalis living in Tripurasouthern Assam and the Bengali population in the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Bengali is also spoken in the neighboring states of OdishaBiharand Jharkhandand sizable minorities of Bengali speakers reside in Indian cities outside Bengal, including DelhiMumbaiVaranasiand Vrindavan.

States of India by Bengali speakers Bengali is national and official language of Bangladeshand one of the 23 official languages in India.

It is also a recognized secondary language in the City of Karachi in Pakistan. Bengali dialects Regional variation in spoken Bengali constitutes a dialect continuum. Linguist Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay grouped these dialects into four large clusters— RarhBangaKamarupa and Varendra ; [54] but many alternative grouping schemes have also been proposed.

In the dialects prevalent in much of eastern and south-eastern Bangladesh BarisalChittagongDhaka and Sylhet Divisions of Bangladeshmany of the stops and affricates heard in West Bengal are pronounced as fricatives. The influence of Tibeto-Burman languages on the phonology of Eastern Bengali is seen through the lack of nasalized vowels and an alveolar articulation of what are categorised as the "cerebral" consonants as opposed to the postalveolar articulation of West Bengal.

Some variants of Bengali, particularly Chittagonian and Chakmahave contrastive tone ; differences in the pitch of the speaker's voice can distinguish words. RangpuriKharia Thar and Mal Paharia are closely related to Western Bengali dialects, but are typically classified as separate languages.

Similarly, Hajong is considered a separate language, although it shares similarities to Northern Bengali dialects. What is accepted as the standard form today in both West Bengal and Bangladesh is based on the West-Central dialect of Nadia Districtlocated next to the border of Bangladesh.

However, use of Shadhubhasha in modern writing is uncommon, restricted to some official signs and documents in Bangladesh as well as for achieving particular literary effects.

This form came into vogue towards the turn of the 19th century, promoted by the writings of Peary Chand Mitra Alaler Gharer Dulal, [60] Pramatha Chaudhuri Sabujpatra, and in the later writings of Rabindranath Tagore. It is modeled on the dialect spoken in the Shantipur region in Nadia districtWest Bengal.Longman academic writing series 4.

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longman academic writing series 4 essays pdf examples

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