I have included in the triggered spark gap section some mention of devices that actually use a liquid or solid substitute for the gaseous material that is the norm in triggered spark gaps.
Internal combustion engines[ edit ] A cross-section view of a butterfly valve In an internal combustion enginethe throttle is a means of controlling an engine's power by regulating the amount of fuel or air entering the engine. In a motor vehicle the control used by the driver to regulate power is sometimes called the throttle, accelerator, or gas pedal.
For a gasoline engine, the throttle most commonly regulates the amount of air and fuel allowed to enter the engine. Recently,for a GDI engine, the throttle regulates the amount of air allowed to enter the engine. The throttle of a diesel regulates the air flow into the engine.
Historically, the throttle pedal or lever acts via a direct mechanical linkage. Technically it means, that the butterfly valve of the throttle is operated by means of an arm piece, loaded by a spring .
This arm is usually directly linked to the accelerator cable, and operates in accordance with the driver, who hits it. The further the pedal Pulse pressure introduction pushed, the wider the throttle valve opens.
Modern engines of both types gas and Pulse pressure introduction are commonly drive-by-wire systems where sensors monitor the driver controls and in response a computerized system controls the flow of fuel and air. This means that the operator does not have direct control over the flow of fuel and air; the Engine Control Unit ECU can achieve better control in order to reduce emissionsmaximize performance and adjust the engine idle to make a cold engine warm up faster or to account for eventual additional engine loads such as running air conditioning compressors in order to avoid engine stalls.
The throttle on a gasoline engine is typically a butterfly valve. In a fuel-injected engine, the throttle valve is placed on the entrance of the intake manifoldor housed in the throttle body.
In a carbureted engine, it is found in the carburetor. When a throttle is wide openthe intake manifold is usually at ambient atmospheric pressure. When the throttle is partially closed, a manifold vacuum develops as the intake drops below ambient pressure.
The power output of a diesel engine is controlled by regulating the quantity of fuel that is injected into the cylinder.
Because diesel engines do not need to control air volumes, they usually lack a butterfly valve in the intake tract. An exception to this generalization is newer diesel engines meeting stricter emissions standards, where such a valve is used to generate intake manifold vacuum, thereby allowing the introduction of exhaust gas see EGR to lower combustion temperatures and thereby minimize NOx production.
In a reciprocating-engine aircraft, the throttle control is usually a hand-operated lever or knob. It controls the engine power output, which may or may not reflect in a change of RPM, depending on the propeller installation fixed-pitch or constant speed.
Throttle body[ edit ] The components of a typical throttle body In fuel injected enginesthe throttle body is the part of the air intake system that controls the amount of air flowing into the engine, in response to driver accelerator pedal input in the main.
The throttle body is usually located between the air filter box and the intake manifoldand it is usually attached to, or near, the mass airflow sensor. Often, an engine coolant line also runs through it in order for the engine to draw intake air at a certain temperature the engine's current coolant temperature, which the ECU senses through the relevant sensor and therefore with a known density.
The largest piece inside the throttle body is the throttle plate, which is a butterfly valve that regulates the airflow.
On many cars, the accelerator pedal motion is communicated via the throttle cable, which is mechanically connected to the throttle linkages, which, in turn, rotate the throttle plate.
In cars with electronic throttle control also known as "drive-by-wire"an electric actuator controls the throttle linkages and the accelerator pedal connects not to the throttle body, but to a sensor, which outputs a signal proportional to the current pedal position and sends it to the ECU.
The ECU then determines the throttle opening based on the accelerator pedal's position and inputs from other engine sensors such as the engine coolant temperature sensor. Throttle body showing throttle position sensor. The throttle cable attaches to the curved, black portion on the left.
The copper-coloured coil visible next to this returns the throttle to its idle closed position when the pedal is released. When the driver presses on the accelerator pedal, the throttle plate rotates within the throttle body, opening the throttle passage to allow more air into the intake manifold, immediately drawn inside by its vacuum.
Usually a mass airflow sensor measures this change and communicates it to the ECU. The ECU then increases the amount of fuel injected by the injectors in order to obtain the required air-fuel ratio.
Often a throttle position sensor TPS is connected to the shaft of the throttle plate to provide the ECU with information on whether the throttle is in the idle position, wide-open throttle WOT position, or somewhere in between these extremes.Control of Pressure Pulsations Pumps considered for low pulse level applications must be selected, designed, constructed, and manufactured with much.
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An engine's power can be increased or decreased by the restriction of inlet gases (by the use of a throttle), but usually decreased. The term throttle has come to refer, informally and incorrectly, to any mechanism by which the power or speed of an .
For example, if systolic pressure is mmHg and diastolic pressure is 80 mmHg (as shown in the figure), then the mean arterial pressure is approximately 93 mmHg using this calculation. blood pressure and pulse rate.
• Explain the mathematical relationship between blood pressure and pulse rate fluctuation with variables such as cardiac output, stroke volume, and peripheral resistance. • Construct concept maps to represent relationships and design an appropriate exercise regimen for someone with high blood pressure.
Topic: Human Cardiovascular Physiology- Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate Determination. Hypothesis: Exercise can raise the blood pressure and the pulse rate. Aim: To determine the effect of exercise on the blood pressure and the pulse rates of students in the class.